Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the eye and visual system.

The eye, its surrounding structures and the visual system can be affected by a number of clinical conditions. Ophthalmology involves diagnosis and therapy of such conditions, along with microsurgery.

Blindness and Visual Impairment have been identified as two important challenges in India related to eye care. National Program to eradicate the above two challenges and World Bank assisted project to address Cataract have been effective to a large extent. More than 5 million cataract surgeries are done in India on an annual basis. A research study published in 2019 states that as large as 275 million people in India will be affected by dry eye disease. This again is a cause of concern and is attributed mostly to the Urban population with high usage of electronic devices.

Eye health services in India is dispensed both through traditional models and through new technology enabled models. Tele medicine and mobile clinics have helped to make inroads in eye care to the remotest areas in India but much needs to be done in building awareness and prevention.